What are the ingredients of COVID-19 vaccines?

Vaccine ingredients depend on the type of vaccine. As vaccines are approved for use, the contents and presentation of each vaccine is published by Medsafe as a data sheet and consumer medicine information.

These form part of the information that companies submit during the approval process. Find the ingredients for the Comirnaty (Pfizer/BioNtech) vaccine here.

Some other types of vaccines use human cell lines in the vaccine manufacturing process. This is known to be a safe and efficient way to produce vaccines. Both the Janssen and Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine candidates use cell lines. NO cells from the manufacturing process remain in the vaccine because purification removes all the cell culture material and each batch undergoes thorough quality control checks. The Catholic Church has issued a formal statement saying it is morally acceptable to take vaccines that use cell lines. Find further information on fetal cells and COVID19 vaccines here.

What types of COVID-19 vaccines have been developed?

Multiple types of vaccines are being developed around the world.

We are familiar with some of the vaccine types, such as the protein subunit candidates, like those used in Hepatitis B and whooping cough vaccines; however, other vaccines are using newer technologies such as mRNA and viral vector vaccines. For further information on the types of vaccines that are being developed, please click here.

Can mRNA COVID-19 vaccine affect fertility or affect future babies?

There is no biologically plausible reason why this vaccine could have any effect on our genes or fertility.

Upon injection, the lipid nanoparticle containing the mRNA is taken up by specialised cells (dendritic cells) at the injection site in the arm. These cells use the instructions from the vaccine mRNA to make only the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the mRNA degrades rapidly. The mRNA from the vaccine does not enter the nucleus of any cells. Furthermore, no components of the vaccine or the spike protein produced reach the ovaries or the testes. More information about how this concern arose can be found here.

Will the vaccine make a person test positive on COVID-19 tests?

No. The vaccine makes a person produce antibodies against the virus spike protein but the nasal swab looks for particles of virus.

The spike protein that is made in your body in response vaccine does not travel far and does not reach your nose.

How long will COVID-19 vaccine immunity (i.e. protection from the COVID-19 disease) last?

We would expect COVID-19 vaccines to provide protection for longer than 2 months, although exactly how long for, remains unknown at this stage. This is because not enough time has passed since the clinical trials started to be able to accurately answer this.

We know that the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine lasts for AT LEAST two months, because data supporting this has been reviewed by Medsafe. As part of the conditional approval of the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, more data is to be provided as it becomes available. It is anticipated that further data will be provided on durability of the immune response post vaccination in coming months.

Will booster doses of a COVID-19 vaccine be needed?

Not enough time has passed since first vaccinations were given to be able to answer this question.

People enrolled in clinical trials are being followed up closely, which will allow this question to be answered in due course. For more information, please click here.

It is expected that small adjustments may be made to the vaccine if the COVID-19 virus changes so much that vaccine loses effectiveness. In this case booster doses will be required to better match the virus variants in circulation, like for the influenza vaccine. How frequently these changes will need to be made is unknown. A major advantage of mRNA vaccine technology is that these changes can be made very quickly (new batches available within a few months compared with more than 6 months for seasonal flu vaccines).

What is the acceptable timeframe between the first and second doses of the Comirnaty vaccine?

To be fully immunised with Comirnaty requires two doses given at least 21 days apart.

Vaccinators are advised not to give the second dose earlier than this, and while longer spacing is acceptable, the recommended spacing is for the second dose to be given as close after 21 days as possible.

If more than one vaccine becomes available, could taking two different vaccines boost the effectiveness?

We do not know the answer to this yet as it is still being investigated in clinical trials. Currently, the COVID-19 vaccines are not interchangeable.

There is no data available on the interchangeability between COVID‑19 vaccines, such that, where possible other vaccines should not be substituted to complete the course. So far, the only COVID-19 vaccine available for use in New Zealand is Comirnaty (Pfizer/BioNTech). Other vaccines are undergoing the Medsafe approval process.

To be fully immunised with Comirnaty, two doses are required, to be given at least 21 days apart. There is no maximum duration between doses, so it is not necessary to restart the course or give a third dose if it has been longer than 21 days since dose one.

For more information, please click here.

If you had the virus and recovered, will you still be able to or need to get the vaccine?

Vaccination is being offered to people who have and have not had SARS-CoV-2 infection previously.

Data from clinical trials and from countries with a lot of COVID-19 cases have shown the vaccines to be safe and effective in this group of people. It is expected that the vaccine will boost the immune response and provide good protection for those who have previously had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Start your vaccination course at least 4 weeks after you have recovered. For more information, please click here.